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' ^ZOOLOGICAL SERIES 

OF 
FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Volume 24 CHICAGO, SEPTEMBER 19, 1939 No. 8 

MALACOLOGICAL NOTES 

BY FRITZ HAAS 

CURATOR OF LOWER INVERTEBRATES 
FIRST ILLINOIS RECORD OF A JAPANESE POND SNAIL 

On November 18, 1938, I found a dead, not full-grown but 
identifiable specimen of Cipangopaludina malleata Reeve, in the 

outer lagoon in Jackson Park, Chicago. 
It is entered in Field Museum Cata- 
logue as No. 11438 and is figured here- 
with (fig. 7). 

I am indebted to Mr. E. Strandine, 
of Northwestern University, and to Mr. 
F. C. Baker, of the University of Illinois, 
for the statement that to their knowledge 
this species has never been recorded from 
Illinois; nor does it seem to have been found 
in the adjacent states. This Japanese in- 
truder has hitherto been known only from 




maUeafa 

cago; Field Mus. No. 11438. O n the Atlantic THfcUi^ARireCBflto of the 

species in the Unj^'pttes^ggbe found 



in various volumes of The Nautilus. UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

REVERSED SPECIMENS OF CAMPELOMA FROM THE CHICAGO AREA 

Some information concerning reversed specimens of shells belong- 
ing to the genus Campeloma Rafinesque has been assembled by 
F. C. Baker in his Fresh Water Mollusca of Wisconsin (Bull. Wis. 
Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv., 70, 1928). Additional data recorded here 
refer to the species integrum Say and decisum Say. 

Baker (I.e., p. 67) says with reference to Campeloma integrum that 
he found only one reversed specimen among 160 normal ones, and that 
none were seen as embryos. Field Museum has one reversed female 

No. 450 93 



94 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. 24 

of integrum (No. 11506), collected on the Wooded Island in Jackson 
Park, Chicago, by H. W. Clark, in March, 1903, which contained 
21 embryos, one of which is reversed. This seems to be the first 
indication that reversed specimens may transmit their anomaly to 
their offspring, but the one instance is, of course, inadequate for 
definite conclusions on this point. 

Baker (I.e., p. 60) remarks that reversed specimens of Campeloma 
decisum are very rare, "but one immature shell occurring among 
over a hundred adult specimens and but four among 260 embryonic 
young." In the Field Museum collection is a reversed immature 
shell (No. 11479), found in the outer lagoon in Jackson Park, Chicago, 
by the writer, on December 6, 1938. A normal female shell (No. 
11508), collected in the Kankakee River near Shelby, Lake County, 
Indiana, by 0. P. Hay, on September 20, 1895, includes one reversed 
embryo among the four contained in it; and there is another reversed 
embryonic shell contained in a collection of normal decisum from the 
same locality (No. 5256). 

TAXONOMY OF THE LARGER GROUPS OF ASIATIC VIVIPARIDS 

In arranging the Viviparidae of Field Museum I find it necessary 
to revise the status of some generic and subgeneric names bestowed 
on Asiatic viviparid snails. The most modern synoptic view of the 
family, that of Thiele (Handb. syst. Weichtierk., pp. 114-116, 1929), 
is out of date on account of Rohrbach's anatomical investigations 
(Arch. Molluskenk., 69, 1937), which prove that the Asiatic viviparids 
(with the exception only of those from Asia Minor belonging to 
Viviparus proper) do not even group with the Viviparinae; they are 
closely related to the African genus Bellamya and constitute with it 
the subfamily Bellamyinae. Rohrbach (I.e.) clearly showed that the 
many Asiatic species which had been attributed to true Viviparus 
present anatomical features which can only be compared to those 
of the African genus Bellamya, but he did not discuss the question 
of their generic position. My work necessitated going into this 
question, and I arrive at the arrangement of the genera and sub- 
genera of the Asiatic Bellamyinae shown below. It seems that two 
different groups of genera may be distinguished as follows: 

A. A group of thin-shelled, generally larger forms, almost destitute 
of shell-adornments like knots, ribs, and keels. It contains 
the following genera: 

Bellamya Jousseaume, 1886 (type, Paludina bellamya Jouss.), 
to which most of the African viviparids belong and which 



1939 MALACOLOGICAL NOTES HAAS 95 

is represented in Asia by species from India (dissimilis 
Muell., bengalensis Lam., etc.), from the Sunda Islands 
(e.g. javanica v.d. Busch), from the Philippine Islands 
(e.g. angularis Muell.), and so on. 

Lecythoconcha Annandale, 1921 (type, Paludina lecythis Benson), 
from India. 

Idiopomus Pilsbry, 1901 (type, Vivipara henzadensis Pilsbry), 
from Burma. 

B. A group of thick-shelled genera with generally rather convex 
whorls, often provided with raised ornamentations in the 
shape of knots, keels, and even spines. 

Mekongia Crosse and Fischer, 1876 (type, Paludina jullieni 
Deshayes), from French Indo-China, a rather highly 
specialized genus which is probably derived from forms like 
Cipangopaludina. 

Eyriesia P. Fischer, 1885 (type Paludina eyriesi Morelet), from 
Cambodia, also a highly specialized form. 

Cipangopaludina Hannibal, 1912P*($ype, Paludina malleata 
Reeve), from Japan, China, and the Amur province of 
Siberia. 

Angulyagra Rao, 1931 [= Dactylochlamys Rao, 1925, not Lauter- 
born, 1901] (type, Paludina oxytropis Benson), from India, 
Burma, and the Philippines. Angulyagra proper comprises 
by far most of the species belonging to this genus. 

Acanthotropis 1 subgen. nov. created for Vivipara partelloi 
Bartsch from Lake Lanao, Mindanao, Philippine Islands, 
is characterized by the possession of a distinct keel at the 
circumference of the two last whorls; this keel is ornamented 
by hollow spines curving back, like those in the African fresh- 
water snail Tiphobia E. A. Smith (thiarid) or in the Phyllo- 
notus section of Murex. 

Heterogen Annandale, 1921 (type, Heterogen turris Annandale), 
is known only from Lake Biwa, Japan. 

Laguncula Benson, 1842 (type, Laguncula pulchella Benson), 
from Chusan Island, a somewhat problematic genus. 

Taia Annandale, 1918 (type, Vivipara naticoides Theobald), 
seems to have a rather wide distribution in Asia, where it is 

, spine; rpoiris, keel. 



96 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. 24 

split up into the following distinguishable groups or 
subgenera: 

Taia proper is confined to India and Burma. 

Temnotaia Annandale, 1919 (type, Taia incisa Annandale), 
comes from Burma. 

Sinotaia 1 subgen. nov. (type, Paludina quadrata Benson) 
seems to comprise the Chinese species hitherto attributed 
to Viviparus, which group around quadratus Benson and 
angulatus Benson. They are characterized by the narrow, 
rather thick shell with an expanded columellar thickening, 
mostly blackish towards its outer margin, and by the indica- 
tion or strong development of keels on the upper, middle, 
and lower part of the whorls. 

Torotaia 2 subgen. nov. (type, Vivipara clemensi Bartsch) 
comprises two Philippine species, mainitensis Bartsch and 
clemensi Bartsch. Its characteristics are the broad, some- 
what scalarid spire, the ventricose whorls and the presence 
of some ribs on the whorls which may assume the strength 
of keels. The umbilicus is always closed and the lower 
margin of the aperture is protracted to some degree near 
the columella. 

Margarya Nevill, 1877 (type, Margarya melanoides Nevill), from 
Yunnan. 

Rivularia Heude, 1890 (type, Paludina (Melantho') auriculata 
Martens) from China. 

A NEW LOCALITY FOR RHINOCORYNE PACIFICA 

Rhinocoryne pacifica, most striking of all the living Cerithiidae, 
originally described by Sowerby (1833) as Cerithium pacificum, seems 
by no means abundant. E. von Martens (Biol. Centr. Amer., 
Mollusca, p. 574, 1900) has summed up our knowledge of this species, 
and apparently it has not been mentioned in the literature since. 
Von Martens established the subgenus Rhinocoryne for this species, 
and this is now regarded as of generic rank. 

In these references it is mentioned only from the Pacific coast of 
both Americas from Arica (southern Peru) in the south to Punta 
Arenas (southwestern Costa Rica) in the north. Field Museum has a 
lot of 14 specimens of Rhinocoryne pacifica (No. 11521), from 



i, China; Taia, generic name. 
2 Torus, a raised ornament; Taia, generic name. 



1939 MALACOLOGICAL NOTES HAAS 97 

Corinto, Nicaragua, about 100 miles north of the most northern 
locality hitherto known. 

The specimens were collected by S. E. Meek, in April, 1906, partly 
in living state, partly inhabited by hermit crabs. 

POLYPYLIS, AN APPARENTLY OVERLOOKED SUBGENUS OF SEGMENTINA 

The subgeneric name Polypylis was proposed by Pilsbry (Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 166, 1906) for some east Asiatic species of 
planorbids formerly attributed to the European genus Segmentina 
Fleming and grouping around Planorbis largillierti Dkr. These 
species differ from Segmentina proper in the following characters, 
using Pilsbry's own words: "The shell is less compressed and not 
carinate, but glossy with deeply clasping whorls. The parietal lamina 
is obliquely transverse, the others transverse, basal long, a shorter 
one in the outer wall, and one or two in the upper margin. There are 
several or many barriers." True Segmentina on the contrary is 
characterized by "a very glossy, flattened shell with acutely angular 
periphery, simple thin lip, deeply embracing whorls, and barriers 
composed of three laminae (parietal, basal, and upper) transverse to 
the whorl, leaving a narrow, three-branched space between them." 

These differences may be seen in the accompanying figures. 
Figure 8, b, shows the disposition of barriers in the European Segmen- 
tina nitida Mueller; figure 8, a, exhibits that 
of the Chinese Segmentina hemisphaerula 
Benson; figure 8, b, is copied from Ross- 
maessler (Icon., 1, fig. 114); figure 8, a, is 
new. In both cases the last part of the 
last whorl has been removed in order a b 

to show clearly the set of laminae. These ^ FIG. ^8. a, Segmentina 
figures show that the east Asiatic seg- 




mentinas cannot be united to Segmentina showing disposition of inner 

j ,1 , T,., , . , , . laminae. X3. b, Segmentina 

proper, and that Pilsbry was right in (Segmentina) nitida Mueller, 

proposing for them the new subgenus showing inner laminae (from 

V, ,. Rossmaessler). X3. 

Polypyhs. 

Though plainly described, this name escaped the attention of the 
recorders. Neither the Zoological Record, the Nomenclator generum et 
subgenerum animalium, nor Thiele, in his comprehensive Handbuch 
der systematischen Weichtierkunde, mentions it; even Mori, the most 
recent author on east Asiatic planorbids (Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto 
Imp. Univ., B, 14, 1938) omits it. Germain, who worked on Plan- 
orbidae in 1921-24 (Rec. Indian Mus., 21), had noticed it, but, as 



98 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. 24 

he says (p. 164), he did not judge the differences emphasized by 
Pilsbry sufficiently important to warrant the new subgenus; he 
therefore groups all the east Asiatic species which may belong here 
with true Segmentina. 

From Germain's list of species we can clearly see which forms 
have the characteristic disposition of the inner laminae, and thus 
belong to the subgenus Polypylis. These are: 

Planorbis hemisphaerula Benson, 1842. Planorbis largittierti 
Dunker, 1867, is synonymous with this species; thus the genotype 
of Polypylis, for which Pilsbry had designated Planorbis largittierti 
Dunker, automatically becomes Planorbis hemisphaerula Benson. 

Planorbis calathus Benson, 1850. Germain cites this species as 
Segmentina calatha, but the specific name ought to be calathus, this 
word being a noun meaning a basket. 

Segmentina lucida Gould, 1859 (= Segmentina usta Gould, 1859). 

Planorbis swinhoei H. Adams, 1870. 

These species must now be cited as Segmentina (Polypylis) 
hemisphaerula Benson, Segmentina (Polypylis) calathus Benson, and 
Segmentina (Polypylis) swinhoei H. Adams. The first lives in 
southern China, including the Riu-kiu Islands; the second is found 
in British India and Ceylon, in Siam, in Java, and in the Aroe 
Islands, and the third in the Riu-kiu Islands and in Japan; the last 
is known only from the Island of Formosa and is occasionally con- 
sidered a mere subspecies of lucida Gould. 

The rest of the species included by Germain in the Asiatic seg- 
mentinas seem to differ from Polypylis in the absence of inner 
laminae. 

WHAT IS LIMNAEUS SORDIDUS KUESTER, 1862? 

Kuester described a Limnaeus sordidus supposedly from Central 
America in his monograph of the genus Limnaea (in Martini-Chem- 
nitz, Illustr. Conch. Cab., (2), 1 , Abt. 17b, p. 58, figs. 15-16, pi. 12, 1862) . 
This species was not reported from Central America by later collec- 
tors, and came to be considered a spurious one, except by von Mar- 
tens. Von Martens believed that it might be an American species 
after all (Biol. Centr. Amer., Mollusca, p. 379, 1899), as it very much 
resembled some of Haldeman's Limnaea palustris in shape and in its 
latticed sculpture; he furthermore noticed in the Dunker collection, 
now in the Berlin museum, a shell supposedly originating in Central 
America, which resembled sordidus in every respect. On the other 
hand, he had never seen a palustris form from Central America, and 





1939 MALACOLOGICAL NOTES HAAS 99 

hence decided that Kuester's sordidus might be a North American 
shell comparable to L. elodes Say. F. C. Baker, in his monograph of 
the American limnaeids (Spec. Publ. Chicago Acad. Sci., No. 3, p. 
313, 1911), went so far as to combine sordidus and palustris, mis- 
trusting the locality "Central America," on the ground that the 
palustris group had never been found south of the Rio Grande. 

In the collections in Field Museum I find four specimens of a 
limnaeid (No. 11466) from Lake Chalco, central Mexico, collected 

by S. E. Meek, in April, 1901, which, 
though in a poor state of preservation, 
undoubtedly belong to the palustris group. 
They combine the palustris shape of the 
shell with the sculpture of vertical and 
horizontal ridges, forming the fenestration 
described by Kuester as characteristic of 

FlG. 9. Stagnicola (Stag- r-'-wj-n //> emv/iWi/Q nnH in'cihlp in rrnr rr>rw 

nicola} palustris sordida Kue- ^mnaeus soraiaus, ana visioie in our copy 
ster (from Kuester's original of Kuester's original figure (fig. 9). The 

pictures of Limnaeus sordidus . TV u ** j-zr 

Kuester). xi. specimens m Field Museum differ from 

those figured by Kuester in being some- 
what more slender, but not so much so as to prevent their 
identification with sordidus. 

As there is no further doubt that a form of palustris, apparently 
distinguishable from the typical one and from the North American 
subspecies of palustris, exists in Mexico, and as Kuester's sordidus 
is based on a fenestrated Mexican form of palustris, I do not hesitate 
to name the Chalco specimens Stagnicola (Stagnicola} palustris 
sordida Kstr. 

THE SOUTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF PLANORBULA 

Apparently no author has hitherto assigned any South American 
planorbid to Planorbula, though earlier workers did know that some 
species in question are provided with internal shell septa; these 
include Clessin (Martini-Chemnitz, Illustr. Conch. Cab., (2), 1, Abt. 
17, Planorbis), when describing his Planorbis janeirensis (I.e., p. 122, 
fig. 3, pi. 18, 1885), and Fred Baker, when publishing his Segmentina 
paparyensis (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1913, p. 662, figs. 9-11, 
pi. 26, 1914) . Lutz, the last reviser of the Brazilian planorbids (Mem. 
Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, 10, pp. 45-61, pis. 15-18, 1918) dealt only with 
their specific discrimination and did not touch the problem of their 
generic position; he, therefore, left paparyensis with Segmentina. 



I 

100 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. 24 

When I found some specimens of "Segmentina" paparyensis 
F. Baker in a lot of shells from northeastern Brazil, which had been 
entrusted to me for classification by Dr. 0. Schubart, then in Recife, 
and on which I shall report elsewhere, I was immediately struck by 
the idea that this species, together with Planorbis janeirensis Clessin, 
of which it is only a local subspecies, belongs to Planorbula. It is 
obvious also that they differ so much from this genus that they have 
to be placed in a distinct new subgenus, for which I propose the 
name Obstructio (for reasons which will be obvious), designating 
Planorbis janeirensis Clessin as the type. The characteristic features 
of this new subgenus, in comparison with true Planorbula, are as 
follows: 

Thickening of the lip constantly wanting; disposition of the six 
internal septa as follows: two parietal septa subequal, at least never 
so different in size as in true Planorbula; four palatal septa, the two 
upper nearly horizontal. 

There is in Africa a planorbid group of snails which, from the 
anatomical data available (Connolly, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Afr., 12, pp. 
196-199, fig. 25, 1925), and from conchological characters, must 
belong to Planorbula. This group is represented by Planorbula 
pfeifferi Krauss and its allies. Jickeli established the subgenus 
Planorbulina f or it (Nova Acta Acad. Leop. Carol., 37, p. 221, 1874). 

NOTES ON VALVATIDS WITH A DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SUBGENUS 

In a recent paper (Uber potientielle Skulpturbildung bei Valvata 
(Cincinna) piscinalis antiqua Sow., Arch. Moll. Kde., 70, pp. 
41-45, 1938) I have described what I called a "potential shell- 
sculpture" in the European Valvata (Cincinna) piscinalis antiqua 
Sow. The specimens considered were collected in Lake Lucerne, 
Switzerland, and are distinguished from ordinary ones from other 
localities by a faint but unmistakable sculpture of radial rib-like 
striae and of spirally revolving lines. The fact that only valvatas 
from lacustrine habitats show such a shell-sculpture leads me to the 
conclusion that the lacustrine environment is in some way correlated 
with sculpturing in fresh-water mollusk shells. 

In the paper mentioned above I gave a list of what is known about 
palaearctic sculptured Valvata, both recent and fossil. Heavily 
sculptured forms are always restricted to some lacustrine basin, and 
smooth, unsculptured valvatas of Europe and Asia, inhabiting vari- 
ous fresh-water habitats, develop traces of sculpture only when they 
occasionally live in a lake; they thus prove that the formation of 
shell-sculpture is an inborn characteristic of valvatids, which remains 



1939 MALACOLOGICAL NOTES HAAS 101 

inactive in the non-lacustrine environment, but becomes potential 
when the habitat, for reasons still unknown, but certainly in some 
relation to lacustrine life, encourages its development. Such develop- 
ment is only phaenotypic. 

Many species of valvatids restricted to lacustrine basins have 
acquired rather conspicuously developed shell-sculpture: the sub- 
genus Megalovalvata Lindholm from Lake Baikal; Costovalvata 
Polinski, from Lake Ochrida in Albania; and the uncoiled tubiform 
fossil valvatid genus Orygoceras Brusina in the southeastern European 
Pliocene the so-called "Neogene Lake." In all these cases the 
presence of sculpture has surely become a genotypic, inheritable 
feature. The presence of a keeled sculpture in the North-American 
subgenus Tropidina H. and A. Adams, is probably due to such a geno- 
typic feature acquired during prolonged lacustrine life and become 
invariable, so that even after the species thus adorned emigrated 
from their original habitat to enter other fresh-water habitats, the 
sculpture remained fixed. 

All the palearctic lacustrine and sculptured valvatids have 
received subgeneric names in correspondence with the type of their 
sculpture and their geographic isolation. Spiral sculpture seems to 
be more frequent than radial, only one subgenus being hitherto 
known which exhibits the latter type, Costovalvata from Lake Ochrida; 
but in this subgenus the radial sculpture is not clearly shown, as it 
is crossed by the traces of a spiral sculpture around the circumference 
of the whorls. There are a few valvatids, however, which present 
definitely radial sculpture, which may be restricted to the apical 
whorls or which may extend over the whole shell, but which can 
always be discerned. These features distinguish the species in 
question from all other living or extinct valvatas, and I therefore 
feel justified in uniting them into a new subgenus which also has some 
characteristic and differentiating anatomical characters and which 
also apparently differs from the rest by some ecological habits. I 
call this new group : 

Pleurovalvata 1 subgen. nov. 

Type, Valvata sincera Say. 

Shell. Trochiform, globose or depressed, exhibiting always on 
the apical whorls and usually on the whole shell surface a regular, 
radial striation which is often raised into thin, elevated, rib-like 
lamellae. 

1 xXeupoj', rib; Valvata, generic name. 



102 FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY ZOOLOGY, VOL. 24 

Jaw. Serrations on the lower margins of plates much finer and 
more numerous than in other subgenera. 

Radula. Central tooth either higher or larger than in other 
valvatas. 

Remarks. Valvata lewisi Currier also belongs in this subgenus. 
The fossil Californian Valvata densestriata Pilsbry may be found to 
belong here likewise. 

Judging from F. C. Baker's notes (The Fresh Water Mollusca 
of Wisconsin, Pt. I, Gastropoda, Bull. Wis. Geol. Nat. Hist. Sur- 
vey, 70, 1928), from which I also have derived the data referring 
to jaw and radula, all the species and their varieties which are re- 
garded above as certainly belonging to Pleurovalvata, are found in 
lakes. Only the var. helicoidea Ball of lewisi is reported from a 
slough, and it is worth mentioning that in this non-lacustrine form 
the sculpture is often obsolete. Thus the ecological distribution of 
the members of this new subgenus Pleurovalvata helps to support my 
theory that lacustrine environmental conditions are in some way 
connected with the development of shell-sculpture. 

AFFINITY OF PAPUINA GLOBULA 

Papuina globula I. Rensch, Zool. Anz., 92, p. 226, fig. 1, 1930; von Benthem- 
Jutting, Nova Guinea, 17, Zool., p. 43, 1933. 

The original locality for this species is given as "Pulie-Fluss, Kap 
Merkus, Neu-Pommern." Field Museum has a series of 11 speci- 
mens (Cat. No. 11707) from Pelilo Island, near Cape Merkus, 
southwestern New Britain (=Neu Pommern) collected by A. B. Lewis 
during the Joseph N. Field Anthropological Expedition, 1909-13. 
These specimens leave no doubt that globula is very closely allied to 
Papuina fringiUa Pfr. from New Georgia, Solomon Islands, and 
from the Admiralty Islands, and that it is probably only an albino 
geographical race of it. I. Rensch (I.e.) suggests that Crystallus 
fictilia Clapp (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 65, p. 397, pi. 4, figs. 1-3, 
1923) from Anki, Malaita Island, Solomon Islands, may be identical 
with P. globula, but this view cannot be supported, Clapp's species 
apparently being a member of the subgenus Crystallopsis, whereas 
globula proves to be a true Papuina. It is listed in Field Museum's 
collection as Papuina fringilla globula I. Rensch. 

IDENTITY OF PLACOSTYLUS (LEUCOCHARIS) DORSEYI 

The species mentioned was described in 1910 (Field Mus., Zool. 
Ser., 7, p. 219, pi. 4, fig. 1). Dall had only one specimen before him, 
the type (Field Mus. No. 11254), which came from Anair Island, 



1939 MALACOLOGICAL NOTES HAAS 103 

near New Ireland, Solomon Islands; the author considered his 
new species to be "by far the smallest and most delicate species of 
Placostylus." 

When reviewing Field Museum's collection of Melanesian land 
shells, I was surprised to find that Dall had attributed the small, 
delicate species he had described, to Placostylus, for it obviously is a 
Partula and, furthermore, a form closely related to P. flexuosa 
Hartman. I do not hesitate, therefore, to remove it from Placostylus 
and to write it Partula (Melanesica) flexuosa dorseyi Dall, since it 
may be subspecifically different from typical flexuosa, coming from 
another island. 



THE LIBRARY OF THE 

OCT 6-1939 

UNIVERSITY OF IU.iN f$ 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBANA